O tym, dlaczego bitwa pod Monte Cassino przypominała średniowieczną batalię opowiada brytyjski historyk i analityk wojskowy Peter. Bitwa ta. Bitwa pod Monte Cassino przeszła do historii jako jedna z naszych ważniejszych potyczek militarnych – podkreślał 14 maja podczas święta. – Luftangriffe auf Italien Angriff auf Tarent Operation Husky – Invasion in Italien (Baytown, Avalanche, Slapstick) – Waffenstillstand von.
Over the two nights, the Royal Sussex Regiment lost 12 out of 15 officers and out of men who took part in the attack.
On the night of 17 February the main assault took place. This latter was across appalling terrain, but it was hoped that the Gurkhas , from the Himalayas and so expert in mountain terrain, would succeed.
This proved a faint hope. Once again the fighting was brutal, but no progress was made and casualties heavy. It became clear that the attack had failed and on 18 February Brigadier Dimoline and Freyberg called off the attacks on Monastery Hill.
The intention was to take a perimeter that would allow engineers to build a causeway for armoured support. Their isolation and lack of both armoured support and anti-tank guns made for a hopeless situation, however, when an armoured counter-attack by two tanks came in the afternoon on 18 February.
It had been very close. The Germans had been very alarmed by the capture of the station and from a conversation on record between Kesselring and Tenth Army commander Gen.
For the third battle, it was decided that whilst the winter weather persisted, fording the Garigliano river downstream of Cassino town was an unattractive option after the unhappy experiences in the first two battles.
The "right hook" in the mountains had also been a costly failure and it was decided to launch twin attacks from the north along the Rapido valley: The idea was to clear the path through the bottleneck between these two features to allow access towards the station on the south and so to the Liri valley.
British 78th Infantry Division , which had arrived in late February and placed under the command of New Zealand Corps, would then cross the Rapido downstream of Cassino and start the push to Rome.
None of the Allied commanders were very happy with the plan, but it was hoped that an unprecedented preliminary bombing by heavy bombers would prove the trump.
Three clear days of good weather were required and for twenty one successive days the assault was postponed as the troops waited in the freezing wet positions for a favourable weather forecast.
Matters were not helped by the loss of Major General Kippenberger, commanding 2 New Zealand Division, wounded by an anti-personnel mine and losing both his feet.
He was replaced by Brigadier Graham Parkinson; a German counter-attack at Anzio had failed and been called off.
The third battle began 15 March. After a bombardment of tons of 1,pound bombs with delayed action fuses,  starting at The bombing was not concentrated — only 50 per cent landed a mile or less from the target point and 8 per cent within 1, yards but between it and the shelling about half the paratroopers in the town had been killed.
Nevertheless success was there for the New Zealanders' taking, but by the time a follow-up assault on the left had been ordered that evening it was too late: Torrents of rain flooded bomb craters, turned rubble into a morass and blotted out communications, the radio sets being incapable of surviving the constant immersion.
The dark rain clouds also blotted out the moonlight, hindering the task of clearing routes through the ruins. On the right, the New Zealanders had captured Castle Hill and point and as planned, elements of Indian 4th Infantry Division, now commanded by Major General Alexander Galloway , had passed through to attack point and thence to point , Hangman's Hill.
However, the Germans were still able to reinforce their troops in the town and were proving adept at slipping snipers back into parts of the town that had supposedly been cleared.
However, a surprise and fiercely pressed counter-attack from the monastery on Castle Hill by the German 1st Parachute Division completely disrupted any possibility of an assault on the monastery from the Castle and Hangman's Hill whilst the tanks, lacking infantry support, were all knocked out by mid-afternoon.
On 20 March Freyberg committed elements of 78th Infantry Division to the battle; firstly to provide a greater troop presence in the town so that cleared areas would not be reinfiltrated by the Germans and secondly to reinforce Castle Hill to allow troops to be released to close off the two routes between Castle Hill and Points and being used by the Germans to reinforce the defenders in the town.
However, the defenders were resolute and the attack on Point to block the German reinforcement route had narrowly failed whilst in the town Allied gains were measured only house by house.
On 23 March Alexander met with his commanders. A range of opinions were expressed as to the possibility of victory but it was evident that the New Zealand and Indian Divisions were exhausted.
Freyberg was convinced that the attack could not continue and he called it off. The next three days were spent stabilizing the front, extracting the isolated Gurkhas from Hangman's Hill and the detachment from New Zealand 24 Battalion which had held Point in similar isolation.
The Allied line was reorganised with the exhausted 4th Indian Division and 2nd New Zealand Division withdrawn and replaced respectively in the mountains by the British 78th Division and in the town by British 1st Guards Brigade.
The German defenders too had paid a heavy price. General Sir Harold Alexander 's strategy in Italy was to "force the enemy to commit the maximum number of divisions in Italy at the time the cross-channel invasion [of Normandy] is launched".
With the arrival of the spring weather, ground conditions were improved and it would be possible to deploy large formations and armour effectively.
The plan for Operation Diadem was that U. II Corps on the left would attack up the coast along the line of Route 7 towards Rome. The French Corps to their right would attack from the bridgehead across the Garigliano originally created by British X Corps in the first battle in January into the Aurunci Mountains which formed a barrier between the coastal plain and the Liri Valley.
It was hoped that being a much larger force than their 4th Indian Division predecessors they would be able to saturate the German defences which would as a result be unable to give supporting fire to each other's positions.
Improved weather, ground conditions and supply would also be important factors. Once again, the pinching manoeuvres by the Polish and British Corps were key to the overall success.
Canadian I Corps would be held in reserve ready to exploit the expected breakthrough. Once the German 10th Army had been defeated, U.
The large troop movements required for this took two months to execute. They had to be carried out in small units to maintain secrecy and surprise.
This was planned to keep German reserves held back from the Gustav Line. Movements of troops in forward areas were confined to the hours of darkness and armoured units moving from the Adriatic front left behind dummy tanks and vehicles so the vacated areas appeared unchanged to enemy aerial reconnaissance.
The deception was successful. As late as the second day of the final Cassino battle, Generalfeldmarschall Kesselring estimated the Allies had six divisions facing his four on the Cassino front.
In fact there were thirteen. The first assault 11—12 May on Cassino opened at By daylight the U. II Corps had made little progress, but their Fifth Army colleagues, the French Expeditionary Corps, had achieved their objectives and were fanning out in the Aurunci Mountains toward the Eighth Army to their right, rolling up the German positions between the two armies.
Crucially, the engineers of Dudley Russell 's 8th Indian Division had by the morning succeeded in bridging the river enabling the armour of 1st Canadian Armoured Brigade to cross and provide the vital element so missed by the Americans in the first battle and New Zealanders in the second battle to beat off the inevitable counter-attacks from German tanks that would come.
Polish II Corps lost officers and 3, other ranks in assaults on Oberst Ludwig Heilmann 's 4th Parachute Regiment, until the attacks were called off.
By the afternoon of 12 May, the Gari bridgeheads were increasing despite furious counter-attacks whilst the attrition on the coast and in the mountains continued.
By 13 May the pressure was starting to tell. The German right wing began to give way to Fifth Army. On 14 May Moroccan Goumiers , travelling through the mountains parallel to the Liri valley, ground which was undefended because it was not thought possible to traverse such terrain, outflanked the German defence while materially assisting the XIII Corps in the valley.
In , the Goumiers were colonial troops formed into four Groups of Moroccan Tabors GTM , each consisting of three loosely organised Tabors roughly equivalent to a battalion specialised in mountain warfare.
Juin's French Expeditionary Corps consisted of the Command of Moroccan Goumiers CGM with the 1st, 3rd and 4th GTM of General Augustin Guillaume  totalling some 7, fighting men,  broadly the same infantry strength as a division and 4 more conventional divisions: The next 48 hours on the French front were decisive.
Cerasola , San Giorgio , Mt. For this performance, which was to be a key to the success of the entire drive on Rome , I shall always be a grateful admirer of General Juin and his magnificent FEC.
Under constant artillery and mortar fire from the strongly fortified German positions and with little natural cover for protection, the fighting was fierce and at times hand-to-hand.
With their line of supply threatened by the Allied advance in the Liri valley, the Germans decided to withdraw from the Cassino heights to the new defensive positions on the Hitler Line.
On the Cassino high ground the survivors of the second Polish offensive were so battered that "it took some time to find men with enough strength to climb the few hundred yards to the summit.
At the end of the war the Poles erected a Polish Cemetery at Monte Cassino on the slope of the mountain. Units of the Eighth Army advanced up the Liri valley and Fifth Army up the coast to the Hitler defensive line renamed the Senger Line at Hitler 's insistence to minimise the significance if it was penetrated.
An immediate follow-up assault failed and Eighth Army then decided to take some time to reorganize. Getting 20, vehicles and 2, tanks through the broken Gustav Line was a major job taking several days.
On 24 May, the Canadians had breached the line and 5th Canadian Armoured Division poured through the gap. On 25 May the Poles took Piedimonte and the line collapsed.
The way was clear for the advance northwards on Rome and beyond. Lucas as commander of the U. VI Corps in February, launched a two pronged attack using five three U.
The German 14th Army , facing this thrust, was without any armoured divisions because Kesselring had sent his armour south to assist the German 10th Army in the Cassino action.
A single armoured division, the 26th Panzer , was in transit from north of the Italian capital of Rome where it had been held anticipating the non-existent seaborne landing the Allies had faked and so was unavailable to fight.
By the next day they would have been astride the line of retreat and 10th Army, with all Kesselring's reserves committed to them, would have been trapped.
At this point, astonishingly, Lieutenant General Clark, commanding the American Fifth Army, ordered Truscott to change his line of attack from a northeasterly one to Valmontone on Route 6 to a northwesterly one directly towards Rome.
Reasons for Clark's decision are unclear and controversy surrounds the issue. Most commentators point to Clark's ambition to be the first to arrive in Rome although some suggest he was concerned to give a necessary respite to his tired troops notwithstanding the new direction of attack required his troops to make a frontal attack on the Germans' prepared defences on the Caesar C line.
Truscott later wrote in his memoirs that Clark "was fearful that the British were laying devious plans to be first into Rome,"  a sentiment somewhat reinforced in Clark's own writings.
This was no time to drive to the northwest where the enemy was still strong; we should pour our maximum power into the Valmontone Gap to insure the destruction of the retreating German Army.
I would not comply with the order without first talking to General Clark in person. On the 26th the order was put into effect.
There has never been any doubt in my mind that had General Clark held loyally to General Alexander's instructions, had he not changed the direction of my attack to the northwest on May 26, the strategic objectives of Anzio would have been accomplished in full.
To be first in Rome was a poor compensation for this lost opportunity. An opportunity was indeed missed and seven divisions of 10th Army  were able to make their way to the next line of defence, the Trasimene Line where they were able to link up with 14th Army and then make a fighting withdrawal to the formidable Gothic Line north of Florence.
Rome was captured on 4 June , just two days before the Normandy invasion. Battle honours were awarded to some units for their roles at Cassino.
In addition, subsidiary battle honours were given to some units which participated in specific engagements during the first part.
Units which participated in the later part of the battle were awarded the honour ' Cassino II'. The capture of Monte Cassino came at a high price. The Allies suffered around 55, casualties in the Monte Cassino campaign.
German casualty figures are estimated at around 20, killed and wounded. In the course of the battles, the ancient abbey of Monte Cassino, where St.
Benedict first established the Rule that ordered monasticism in the west, was entirely destroyed by Allied bombing and artillery barrages in February They had to find the materials necessary for crates and boxes, find carpenters among their troops, recruit local labourers to be paid with rations of food plus twenty cigarettes a day and then manage the "massive job of evacuation centered on the library and archive,"  a treasure "literally without price.
Among the treasures removed were Titians , an El Greco and two Goyas. The American writer Walter M. As Miller stated, this experience deeply influenced him and directly resulted in his writing, a decade later, the book A Canticle for Leibowitz , which is considered a masterpiece of science fiction.
The book depicts a future order of monks living in the aftermath of a devastating nuclear war , and dedicated to the mission of preserving the surviving remnants of man's scientific knowledge until the day the outside world is again ready for it.
The assertion that the German use of the abbey was "irrefutable" was removed from the record in by the Office of the Chief of Military History.
A congressional inquiry to the same office in the 20th anniversary year of the bombing stated: The final change to the U. The day following the battle, the Goumiers , French Moroccan colonial troops attached to the French Expeditionary Forces, have been accused of rape and murder through the surrounding hills.
Some of these units were accused of committing atrocities against the Italian peasant communities in the region. Immediately after the cessation of fighting at Monte Cassino, the Polish government in Exile in London created the Monte Cassino campaign cross to commemorate the Polish part in the capture of the strategic point.
Later, an imposing Polish cemetery was laid out; this is prominently visible to anybody surveying the area from the restored monastery.
The German cemetery is approximately 2 miles 3. In the s, a subsidiary of the Pontificia Commissione di Assistenza distributed Lamps of Brotherhood , cast from the bronze doors of the destroyed Abbey, to representatives of nations that had served on both sides of the war to promote reconciliation.
In , a memorial was unveiled in Rome honouring the Allied forces that fought and died to capture the city. From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia.
The Winter Line and the battle for Rome. This section needs additional citations for verification.
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May Learn how and when to remove this template message. Battle of Monte Cassino order of battle January Battle of Rapido River.
Second Battle of Monte Cassino order of battle February Operation Diadem order of battle. The confusion between the J-3 and L-5 is easy to understand since they are very similar aircraft.
It is possible that the difference in height is explained by the one being a height above the abbey and the other a height above the valley floor.
La Repubblica , Culture section in Italian 3 June Retrieved 24 April A country at war, — A New Look at the Past.
Sterling Publishing Co Inc. Defender of the Realm — 1st ed. Angelo in Theodice e la confusione tra i fiumi Rapido e Gari , Angelo in Theodice and the Confusion between Rapido and Gari rivers.
Archived from the original on 26 January Retrieved 21 February Holt, Rinehart and Winston. A Eulogy for Walt Miller". I went to war with very romantic ideas about war, and I came back sick.
Bio-Bibliographies in American Literature. Rampage on Monte Cassino". The Day of Battle: The War in Sicily and Italy, — Alexander's Generals the Italian Campaign — The bombardment of Monte Cassino February 14—16, The Friction of War.
Italy and the Battle for Rome God's playground, volume II. Anzio and the Battle for Rome. The Battle for Rome January—June Battle For Monte Cassino.
Hapgood, David; Richardson, David . The Battle for Rome. Battle of Monte Cassino, Portrait of a Battle. Butler, Sir James , ed.
Victory in the Mediterranean, Part 1 — 1st April to 4th June Revised by Jackson, General Sir William. A Question of Honor. The Sangro to Cassino.
Archived from the original on 17 November Anatomy of the Battle. Stalin's Pact with Hitler. The conquest of history.
Section III — Italy. Battle Honours of the Indian Army — The Battles For Monte Cassino. Naples-Foggia 9 September January The Surreys in Italy. Die Schlacht bei Monte Cassino Journeys to discover his mother's meaning.
Is also an albino. Wants to reunite humans with this race so they can prosper once again. Is second in line to his father's clan. Is being used by his father to spy on humans through his brother.
Age 9 Is a spoiled little girl who doesn't like the way her stepmother controls her life. She finds running from her problems easier, until she runs into Keith's life.
Middle Aged Creates a magic he believes will make him into a powerful mage by taking the horn from a unicorn. Doesn't realize it's more than he bargains for.
After having its body destroyed by Jenario, this unicorn wants more than just a soul trapped within a pretend mage.
He seeks another who's One with Nature, and a Healer is the only way. Middle Aged Works for Jenario as a hired assassin. Makes the perfect puppet to do the dark horn's dirty work when asked to spy on Keith.
Knows the dark horn is after Keith's body, so gives up her horn to protect his soul. A half-breed Black Wing searching for his Black Wing mother in the human realms.
Agrees to help Jenario spy on Keith, but soon grows tired of being used as a puppet. Controls smoke and flames. Can become fire as needed.
Can hear any secret that's picked up by the wind. Has a very mischievous personality. Can become air as needed. Can be found following the great migration of sea creatures as temperatures change with the seasons.
Pinterest is a great way to organize ideas for writers. See more character art, sketches, and other author interests!
Check out the free download of the month on Amazon for Kindle: Click Here to Visit Amazon. See some of the chapter snippets and struggles often posted about the latest writing, upcoming character concepts, and just general who-ha on Wisdom Novels Wordpress.
A young boy must discover what he is and where he came from in order to unite the people of the land and stop a growing Darkness caused by the first black unicorn.
Meet a half-breed Black Wing seeking his captive mother in the human realms in order to escape his pure-blood family, an alchemist wielding a newfound power he hopes will make him the magic-user he has always wished to be, a Healer seeking to destroy the very foundation which lead to the division of his people, and two sister unicorns.
Originally started back in , Wisdom Novels was a mere concept of characters thrashing through an unknown land and trying to stop a growing Darkness.
Where this Darkness came from was a mystery. Following an art progress, the story started out using animal characters. Now, with myself being an illustrator, I was not satisfied with just using animals.
I knew I wanted more, and more came the longer I worked on the project. The first three books in the series.
It follows the footsteps of a young man who must discover what he is in order to stop a growing Darkness caused by the first Black Unicorn.
Kindle version available for short stories. Most of which are fun and unrelated to the main storyline. Other genres may be explored besides Medieval Fantasy.
Companion art book that corresponds to the Wisdom Novels series, combining both digital and traditional pieces into a colorful arrangement of characters and the world they live in.
The second trilogy in the series that will unleash the true enemy behind the Darkness, and stir up an adventure that involves the great Elemental Masters themselves.
Currently, we have a Western Short available for download. Book One "Wisdom" is in the works to become the next audio book.
The release date will not be until mid Discover semi-realistic art pieces created just for the series. Take home some imagination!
There have been lots of questions asking where the idea came from, or how long it took to come up with the concept. Originally, there were two ideas that gradually merged into one.
Some characters just come out while writing. I don't plan them. They're just born into the story. Others are pulled from long-ago ideas that I'd like to see in writing.
Then there are the conceptual characters, those formed in order to produce future novels. To me, they are the most exciting and challenging ones.
We need to move! Every now and then they would both wink at once. Wisdom, who was furthest from Katherine, pricked his ears at the faintest clop of hoofs hitting ground.
He cried out her name just as a dark shape began to materialize from the mist. Nostrils flared, and its lips pulled back to reveal a set of fangs